The history of Chad dates back to the 10th century, when the Sao settled south of Lake Chad. These Sao, who have now disappeared, are the ancestors of several populations in the Chadian region, including the Kotokos, an important people of hunters and fishermen. Many pieces of terracotta and bronze made by the Sao and representing human beings and animals have been found south of Lake Chad.
In the second half of the 19th century, Europe discovered the existence of Chad through the accounts of travelers Sheik El Toussi, Barth (1857) and Nachtigal (1879).
Several powerful states were formed, clashed, dominated each other in turn; the kingdom of Kanem-Bornou, the sultanate of Barguirmi, the powerful Ouaddaï empire successively extended their domination over the present major part of the country between the IXth and the end of the XVIIIth century.
The founding of N'djaména (ex Fort-Lamy), the future capital of Chad, and the reestablishment of peace in the kingdom of Baguirmi and in the neighboring kingdom of Ouaddai put an end to the struggles. It was not until 1913 that Chad was fully constituted.
In 1940, Félix Eboué, governor of Chad, decided to rally the country to Free France. It is from Chad that General Leclerc will be able to leave, and the Chadian soldiers will be in Paris for the Liberation.
Proclaimed a Republic on November 28, 1958, Chad acceded to international sovereignty on August 11, 1960. Since that date, the country has experienced institutional and political development.
Years of dictatorship and one party have prevented the emergence of any democratic culture and political pluralism.
The various regimes which have succeeded have created and maintained regionalism, tribalism, nepotism, social inequalities, violations of human rights and fundamental individual and collective freedoms, the consequences of which have been war, political violence. , hatred, intolerance and mistrust between the different communities that make up the Chadian nation. This institutional and political crisis that has shaken Chad for more than three decades has not, however, weakened the determination of the Chadian people to achieve nation-building, dignity, freedom and prosperity.
Chad currently lives in a pluralist democracy with a President of the Republic and a parliament elected by the people.
A link between the Maghreb and black Africa, crossroads of trans-Saharan caravans and cradle of nomadic civilizations, this country crystallizes in itself the contrasts between the desert of the North and the savanna of the South, the ascetic Muslim traditions and the animist rites or elaborate Christians, nomadic populations living to the rhythm of their camels and pastures, and sedentary farmers working to domesticate the land and give it a human face.
Chad is a country in Central Africa which covers an area of 1,284,000 km2, 560 km2 are agricultural. The twentieth country in the world by area, Chad is the fifth largest country in Africa after Sudan, Algeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Libya.
This country is characterized by its vastness (twice the size of France) but also by its isolation and its distance from the sea. It is located 1700 km from Douala (Cameroon) and 2,400 km from Port Sudan on the Red Sea. .
Its borders are shared with Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic and Cameroon to the south, Nigeria to the west, Niger to the north – west and Libya to the north.
The relief of Chad is comparable to a basin bordered by two crowns of mountains and plateau: in the North with the Tibesti massif (3415 m at the volcano of Emi Koussi) and in the East by the sandstone plateau of Ouaddaï (1360m) lowering towards the southwest. The lowest zone is occupied by Lake Chad, the final receptacle of the vast flood plains of the Chari and Logone rivers.
These two rivers constitute the only river network: the Cari flows over 1200km from the Central African Republic and its main tributary, the Logone, originates in Cameroon over 1000km. Both converge on the approach to the capital. They are partly navigable four months a year. There are five main lakes: Chad, Fitri, Iro, Lere, Tekem. The waters are full of fish but made dangerous by bilharzia and guinea worm.
Climate and Vegetation
The climate is a humid tropical climate in the south (the most watered and populated Sudanese zone), offering a landscape of wooded savannah and more sparse forest as the villages approach due to excessive logging. The climate of the central zone is of the Sahelian type characterized by a thorny steppe, strongly marked by a dry season longer than the rainy season. The North, subject to a desert Saharan climate with contrasting landscapes, represents half of the country's surface area.
The harmattan, a dry and hot continental wind, carries winds from the east and north-west of the Sahara. The monsoon, equatorial, wet and cool with winds from the South-West, rhythm of the dry season and the rainy season.
The territory has 600,000 hectares of classified forests and 400,000 hectares of national parks. The two most important parks offering the most variety of species are the famous Zakouma National Park in Salamat and Manda National Park in Sarh Prefecture.